Satyajit Das: In Japan, Neither the 2020 Olympics Nor Abenomics Will Be Magic Bullet
Tokyo's winning bid for the Olympics and Shinzo Abe's new economic policies have given the Japanese new hope. Outsiders still have doubts.
The global economic environment is weak with Japan’s major trading partners, such as the US and Europe, trapped in an environment of low or no growth.
In response to the stronger yen and cost pressures since the mid-1980s, Japanese manufacturers have relocated production overseas, reducing the benefits of a lower exchange rate.
Japan’s export industries have declined over the last 20 years. In 1992, Japan was the lead exporter among major Asian mainland exporters, specifically China, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, India, Philippines, and Taiwan; of this group Japan's exports accounted for 67% of total exports. In 2003 Japanese exports represented just over 30% of major Asian mainland exports. By 2012, Japan’s exports were about 15% the size of these Asian mainland exporters.
Many Japanese exporters based in Japan are financially weak. Japanese firms no longer have a significant technological advantage over competitors, primarily from South Korea, Taiwan, or China.
Devaluation of the yen also pushes up the cost of imports. Since March 2011, Japan’s trade balance has been negative, reversing decades of surpluses. This reflects the shift of production overseas by Japanese companies. But the most significant factor is the Fukushima nuclear disaster which led to the shutdown of Japan’s nuclear power plants. This has increased import of fuel, oil, and liquefied natural gas.
Increasing inflation to the targeted 2% level is designed to break the hold of disinflation or deflation on the economy. It is seen as essential to strong nominal growth, increased consumption, and ultimately the reduction of debt.
Unfortunately, the simple adoption of a target does not guarantee rising prices. Before the recent initiatives, inflation -- including energy but excluding the cost of fresh food -- fell 0.5% per annum in the year to March 2013 the highest rate of deflation in two years.
There are limited signs of higher prices in the wider economy, at least as yet. The new initiatives may also create the wrong kind of inflation.
Japan needs demand-driven inflation, reflecting the effect of increasing wages, higher consumption, and increased purchasing power. Lack of income increases, low economic growth, and also an aging population means a structural lack of demand. This is exacerbated by over-supply and excess capacity in many industries.
The regulatory environment and benign shareholders prevent industrial consolidation. Low interest rates encourage banks to maintain loans to zombie companies that can cover the interest cost but have no viable business, preventing rationalization of capacity. A stagnant market and oversupply mean permanent pressure on companies to maintain market share and minimal price increases.
Current policies are more likely to create cost-push inflation. Devaluation of the yen has increased the cost of imported goods, such as imported energy costs, which have driven an 11% increase in the cost of electricity.
Higher costs may, in fact, reduce consumption unless incomes rise commensurately. But wages reached their lowest level since 1992 in January 2013, albeit before the current initiatives.
Higher incomes would also increase Japan’s cost structure. In combination with higher energy and other imported input costs, it would reduce, not improve, Japan’s international competitiveness without significant labor market reforms.
Stagnant incomes are not offset by the wealth effect of higher stock prices. The bulk of Japanese savings are held as low-yielding bank deposits. Over 80% of Japanese households have never invested in any security; 88% have never invested in a mutual fund. Shares represent around 7% of Japanese household financial assets, compared to around 25% in the US. Rising stock prices affect a very small portion of the population, boosting consumption of luxury items rather than driving broad-based increases in consumption.
The conventional analysis that suggests the current initiatives will increase consumption may prove incorrect. Rising costs may reduce purchasing power, unless matched by rising wages and real incomes. This would reduce spending and confidence, reducing the effectiveness of Abenomics.
The chances of Prime Minister Abe’s program succeeding are limited. The failure of charismatic and popular Prime Minister Koizumi’s ambitious policies in the early 2000s evidence the difficulty of implementing even modest reform in Japan. Bloomberg columnist William Pesek summed up the increasing doubt like this: “This faith that Japan is just one huge spending package away from bliss is becoming more detrimental with each passing year and credit downgrade. Abenomics really is more religion than reality.”
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