The Unintended Consequences of Fed Policy
Do the results of its low interest rate regime make sense?
And long-leggedy beasties
And things that go bump in the night,
Good Lord, deliver us!
-- Old Scottish Prayer
Where the Wild Things Are is a beloved children's book and now a beautiful movie. But in the investment world, there are really scary wild things lurking about in the hidden recesses of the economic landscape. Today we look at one of the unintended consequences of the Federal Reserve's low interest rate policy.
For quite some time, I've been arguing that we're faced with no good choices -- not just in the US, but in the entire "developed" world. I see a low-growth, Muddle Through world over the next years (with a double-dip recession just to liven things up). However, that doesn't mean that we'll lack for volatility. Things could get volatile rather quickly. Let's set the background.
It's Not Just Japan
Let's look at today's interest rate picture. On November 19, we had the bizarre occurrence of banks actually paying the government to hold their cash. Three-month treasuries yield a miniscule 0.01% in interest. If you opt to buy a one-year bill you get all of 0.26%. You can see the entire spectrum below.
Look at the graph of the yield curve below. It's as steep as we've seen it in a long time. But that's almost the point. Banks are essentially getting free money. If you're a banker and can't make money in this environment, you need to quit and find meaningful employment.
And that's part of the rationale that the Fed espouses with its low interest rate regime. Not only does it allow banks to repair their balance sheets, it also encourages investors to put money into riskier assets in order to get some return on their investments. Over $260 billion has gone into bond funds this year, and just $2.6 billion into stock funds. However, you have to balance that with the fact that some $400 billion has left money market funds paying less than 0.2%. So there's some movement to capture yield.
But is it just banks that are getting cheap money? And is encouraging investors to find riskier assets a sound policy? Maybe not.
The Euro-Yen Cross and the Dollar Carry Trade
I wrote a great deal in the past few years about the strong correlation of the euro-yen cross to stock markets all over the world in general. (The euro-yen cross is the exchange rate of the euro and the Japanese yen.) This was a proxy for the Japanese carry trade. The stock markets of the world rose and fell in synchronization with the yen versus the euro.
A currency carry trade is a strategy in which an investor sells a certain currency with a relatively low interest rate and uses the funds to purchase a different currency yielding a higher interest rate. A trader using this strategy attempts to capture the difference between the rates, which can often be substantial, depending on the amount of leverage used.
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